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Saturday, 24 June 2017

Are schools really being swept up in a "drug epidemic"? Have things really changed since we were teens?

Earlier this week the Herald Sun published an article titled 'Victorian schools swept up in drug epidemic as hundreds of children struggle with addiction'. Not surprisingly it attracted a great deal of attention, being picked up by most media outlets across the country, with radio and TV jumping onto the story very quickly. It came out just after I had written a blog on the fact that fewer Australian teens reported drinking alcohol (which some people refused to believe was true) and fed right into the belief of some that if indeed young people were drinking less then that had to be due to the fact that they were simply now using more illicit drugs (something that is not supported by the data that we have ...)

So what about this story and the fact that according to the Herald Sun (and I would presume data they received from Victoria Police), police "have been called to investigate more than 450 drug offences on school grounds, or at school events, since January 2014" - what does that actually mean? Do the figures that were provided to the paper really mean that Victorian schools are being 'swept up in a drug epidemic'?

Now, before I get into what these figures may or may not mean, I want to make it clear that I'm not saying that we don't have a problem with illicit drugs in schools. As the Education Department spokesman Alex Munro is quoted as saying in the story - "Our schools are a reflection of our communities, and unfortunately, the problems that we see in our community sometimes affect our schools." It's a great quote and he's absolutely right - illicit drugs continue to be a problem in our society and it's no surprise that illicit drugs can be found in schools. That said, does the data provided in this story support the notion that Victorian schools are being swept up in a "drug epidemic"? Absolutely not! If that was the case we'd be seeing many other indicators such as increasing number of young people being hospitalised, more drug-related deaths amongst our teens, rising youth crime rates and sky-rocketing drug arrests and charges amongst our school-based youth. If any of this was happening I am sure the Herald Sun would be the first to let us know about it!

All the data we have suggests that use of illicit drugs amongst school-based young people is low, far lower than it was in the 1990s (where we have comparable data). That doesn't mean it doesn't happen. Drugs are certainly used by some teens and in some parts of the country there are real problems. Small regional centres, particularly in Victoria and WA, with lots of social problems such as high youth unemployment and poverty have been devastated by methamphetamine (or 'ice'). In other parts of the country there is just greater access to some drugs and, for whatever reason, the use of these drugs have been normalised. It's also important to remember that in higher socio-economic areas where teens have access to money, as well as greater freedom in many cases, drugs like ecstasy and cocaine are increasingly being regarded as just part of what you do when you socialise.

So what do these police figures actually mean? At this point I need to say that I have not been able to access the data that the Herald Sun was provided. Based on similar data released from other states in the past, however, here are some important things to consider when trying to interpret what police investigating 'drug offences' on school grounds could really mean ...

Firstly, it needs to be stated that schools now have a legal obligation to contact the police should they find what they believe to be an illegal drug on the school grounds, regardless of whether the drug has been brought into the school by a student, an adult or whoever. If a drug or drug paraphernalia (e.g., a bong or an ice pipe) is found at a school on a Monday morning after a weekend, police need to be called. When the police are called to a school to investigate a drug issue it doesn't necessarily mean a student was using a drug or even found with one. As the article states - "Some of the drug offences had been committed by older perpetrators, who were caught dealing and using within the school grounds."

In many of these cases (particularly those involving primary school children) I can almost guarantee that the police were called because a child had brought a drug to school that they had found lying around at home. When I was a primary school teacher in the early 80s I can remember a couple of occasions over the years where very young students (Years 1 and 2) brought in drugs or paraphernalia for 'show-and-tell'. I can't imagine that has changed, although there would now be a greater range of drugs or equipment some children may now find. In the article the police are quoted as saying that "Kids aged 11, 12, 13 have been picked up with ice pipes on them" - without a doubt there would be some cases (particularly in areas with lots of social problems and disadvantage) where you may see drugs being used by this age group (many of these have been well-documented by the media), but for the most part children bringing pipes to schools would simply be doing that - bringing them to school - they're certainly not planning to use them!

What I found most interesting in the piece is the reluctance of the reporter to mention the word 'cannabis'. He talks about teens being caught with ketamine (twice!), LSD, ice, "dangerous new synthetic drugs", as well as ecstasy, but fails to mention the illicit drug that we know is most likely to be used by school-based young people. Now, as I have already said, I don't have access to the data that the Herald Sun was provided but I can almost guarantee that cannabis was the number one drug that police were called to deal with in schools. I can also tell you that if there had been a significant number of ice-related incidents the paper would have reported the actual number - there weren't that many, so they just made sure to mention that it was in the mix. In 2015 the Sydney's Daily Telegraph published a very similar story about police responding to drug-related incidents in schools. Once again, they highlighted the sensational, but at least they acknowledged that 75% of all the incidents were cannabis-related. Now I'm not trying to downplay the cannabis issue - it's an illegal drug, but you need to ask yourself why didn't the reporter mention it in the story ... It's simple, the other drugs sound so much more frightening and will grab attention. Cannabis is a drug that some readers may have used during their teens, it's not scary enough - let's throw in ketamine (twice!), parents reading the article won't know what that is and that's going to have more of an impact! Sad but true!

The article states that "drug-dealing charges have been laid in 78 cases". It is not clear whether they were school students or not. This, once again, feeds into the myth that there is a lot of drug dealing going on in school grounds. I get contacted by many parents who "have heard stories" of dealing going on, only to have their concerns confirmed when some students (usually Year 9s) have been suspended or expelled. It is important to acknowledge, however, that many of these students who get caught bringing cannabis to school are just 'silly kids' - we're not talking high-level drug dealers here. These teens usually don't have a lot of friends and are able to access the drug in some way (e.g., steal it from an older brother or parent) and simply take it to school to impress a group of their peers. In many cases, there was no actual 'dealing' and some of those involved had rarely, if ever, actually used the drug. They just wanted to make friends, made a stupid decision and then found themselves in great trouble. As much as the article talks about "sophisticated rackets" being uncovered (and without doubt that sometimes happens), for the most part it's just 'silly kids'.

In addition, the reporter throws sentences around like "some children have landed in hospital after taking drugs on school camps" - no numbers are given or what drugs were involved. If you're going to report a story like this, provide all the data - don't 'cherry-pick' it and try to terrify people ... No parent wants their child to be exposed to drugs when they go to schools and this story plays right into all those fears Mums and Dads have in this area.

Drugs have always found their way into schools. I went to a Catholic boys' school in Perth in the early to mid 1970s and I remember wondering why on earth a group of my peers in Year 7 were sitting at a bus stop spraying 'Pure and Simple' into a brown paper bag and then passing it around to sniff it. As for illicit drugs, I first saw cannabis in Year 9 in Brother Alphonsus's Social Studies class when someone handed me a matchbox and told me to pass it to the boy sitting next to me. I opened it up and saw a box full of what I thought was lawn clippings! It was also well known across the school that cannabis grew down by the school swimming pool. The group of older boys who planted and sold it had a thriving business ... None of my friends were involved in that scene at all - it simply wasn't a part of our lives and that's exactly the same today. Yes, there will be some who will get involved but the majority won't...

When I taught in the early 1980s I worked in a particularly tough school in a lower socio-economic part of Perth for a couple of years and we would often have to confiscate tins with small amounts of petrol or other products from Year 4s and 5s that they would bring from home, planning to sniff them at recess or lunchtime. I can also remember being given a small foil of cannabis by a Year 5 student I taught who had found it in the playground. My memory is that the principal simply flushed it down the toilet - we didn't call the police. That just wouldn't happen today ...

What has certainly changed is the range of drugs that are now available, as well as access. In addition to ecstasy/MDMA, amphetamine and other drugs that may not have been as popular or accessible when we were young, GHB and ketamine have been added to the mix. When you add the growing number of emerging psychoactive substances (EPS) or 'synthetic drugs' that are now around, together with easy online access to substances, it's not surprising that there is a great deal of fear in this area. It is important to remember, however, that most school-based young people don't use these substances - once they leave (or become disengaged from) school, that all changes and changes quickly - but while they're at school, for the most part they are protected.

I am fully aware that if a person reading this believes that drugs are spiralling out of control in our schools and classrooms, nothing I am going to say is going to change their mind ... The fact that police have to be called to schools to investigate drug offences at all, of course is a concern and, in a perfect world, it wouldn't happen. Unfortunately, we don't live in a perfect world and drugs are around and can be accessed by young people.

What I find offensive is the headline and the reinforcement of the belief by many that today's young people are so much worse than previous generations, not only in the area of alcohol and other drugs but almost everything! There is certainly illicit drug use amongst some of our school-based young people and a small number who get themselves into great difficulty as a result of their drug use. But that is not a new thing - it's always been there and there is no evidence to suggest that the situation has changed dramatically in recent years (in fact, the reverse is true - illicit drug use has reduced!). Yes, there is a greater range of drugs available today and increased access, mainly due to the internet, but most of our school-based young people make good choices in this area ... but don't let that get in the way of a good headline!

Saturday, 17 June 2017

If fewer teens are drinking alcohol and if they do drink, they're older when they start, do we know why?

With the release of the latest National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) results we now have even more evidence that growing numbers of our young people are choosing not to drink alcohol. At the end of last year we saw the release of the data from the Australian Secondary School Alcohol and Drug (ASSAD) survey(23,000 students from Catholic, Independent and state schools surveyed from across the country) which told a very similar story. Put simply, fewer teenagers are drinking alcohol. My favourite piece of data from the ASSAD survey is that in 1999 we had around one in ten 12-17-year-olds who had never used alcohol, but in the 2014 survey we had 1 in 3 who reported never drinking. That is a phenomenal result and a cultural shift that we should be celebrating!

This is not just an Australian phenomenon, we are seeing similar results in many parts of the world. I was in The Netherlands last year when their school data was released and their numbers are almost identical to ours, the recently-released US figures show a decline and some of the UK figures show quite dramatic reductions in alcohol use. It would appear that we are seeing a shift in attitudes towards alcohol and drinking amongst our young people. Now it's important to make it clear that we still have significant issues with some of our teens and underage drinking. Australian data shows that although we appear to have fewer teens drinking, those that do, continue to drink in a risky way, with some research suggesting that they may even be drinking in a riskier manner than in the past.

So if there are fewer Australian teens drinking (and that certainly reflects what I see in schools across the country), why is this happening?

There has been very little research conducted on those young people who choose not to drink and why they make this decision. Most studies have focused on how this group deals with the pressures they face to drink, particularly during adolescence, as well as examining some of the strategies they choose to use in social situations to avoid drinking. As more young people make the decision not to drink (or at the very least, delay their first drink or drink less), however, more research is being conducted, particularly in university or college settings in the US, and, as a result, we are learning more about their motivations. 

Some of the more 'traditional' reasons given for young people not drinking include the following:
  • religious and/or cultural prohibitions
  • sporting or academic ambitions
  • family history of alcohol misuse
  • not liking the taste and/or effects of alcohol
  • cost of alcohol
In more recent research, although factors such as taste, cost and not fitting in with other commitments continue to be identified, it would appear that real life observations (i.e., young people watching those around them, both family and friends), appear to have the greatest influence. In a 2014 study looking at young people who drink little or no alcohol, the following influences were identified:
  • good parental models – their family set boundaries around appropriate drinking behaviours and had provided them with positive role models in 'how to drink'
  • seeing negative effects of alcohol on family members – as much as the family can provide good role models around sensible drinking, some young people experience the negative consequences of parents' or other family members' alcohol use and the problems it causes to their lives and relationships leading them to choose to abstain
  • seeing negative effects of alcohol on friends and others around them – friends and others drinking to excess and experiencing problems (e.g., personal harm and damaged social reputations) reinforced the decision not to drink
None of these are really surprising and still don't explain why we have seen such a significant change with the young people of today. Could there be something that is unique about this generation that makes them view alcohol and drinking differently? 
Recently, there have been a number of studies conducted in the UK that have sought to explain why we are seeing growing numbers of those aged 18-25 years choosing not to drink alcohol. A 2016 article in the New Scientist called 'Generation Clean' highlighted some 'modern' issues that have been identified in recent research that could possibly explain this phenomenon. These included the following:
  • financial pressures – this, of course, relates to the cost of alcohol once again, but studies suggest that this generation, in particular, have great concern in this area with growing student debt, greater job insecurity and rising housing costs. Drinking alcohol costs money and there is evidence to suggest that some young people are opting for cheaper ways of socializing
  • socializing no longer requires meeting in a pub or bar – there are a number of studies to suggest that social media could be impacting on drinking behaviour. Traditional methods of communicating and socializing continue to be important for many, but there are now other options and young people are embracing these. So much communication is now conducted on-line and does not necessarily have to involve holding a drink in your hand in a crowded venue
  • concern about on-line image - once again, this relates to social media and the fact that cameras are everywhere. If you drink to excess and do something stupid, it is now there forever. Young people are also becoming increasingly aware that employers often look into a job-seeker's online presence - what you do on a Saturday night can have long-term implications on your future employment prospects
  • increasingly diverse populations – as countries increasingly welcome newcomers from cultures where drinking is less common, some experts believe this could be exposing young people to alternative ways of socializing that don't necessarily have to involve alcohol
  • possible 'backlash' to the excess of their elders – this is a particularly interesting one and is often referred to as the 'Ab Fab' theory (after the TV show Absolutely Fabulous). It suggests that young people are choosing not to partake, essentially bucking the trends of their parents (the teens of the 90s) who were drinking to excess and experimenting with illicit drugs
From my perspective I believe that one of the major changes we are seeing with our current school-based young people is the growing acceptance of non-drinkers by those who choose to drink. More and more, non-drinkers are now being regarded as a valuable part of a social group. Where once the 'cool drinking group' would want nothing to do with those who didn't drink, they now welcome them, knowing full well that they can be very useful on a Saturday night. Not only are they the people who look after those who get into trouble but they can also be incredibly useful in later years as the 'designated driver'.
When I try to explain these very positive results to parents I boil it down to three things, firstly I think there is enough evidence to suggest that social media is indeed having a significant influence. The way young people communicate and socialize is now very different from in the past and this must be having some impact. This does not always have to be a positive influence (as I'm sure every parent is aware) but there is a growing awareness amongst teens of their online image and social media does offer them so many other ways of interacting with their peer group, particularly for those who are not interested in partying and drinking to excess.

Secondly, you can't underestimate the impact of education in this area. We now have a much better idea of 'what works' in school-based drug education drug education around alcohol. Simply saying "don't drink" is not going to work and, instead, we have moved towards arming our children with empowering messages around looking after themselves and their friends. Some young people are going to drink alcohol, no matter what we do, keeping them as safe as possible is vital. At the same time these messages have helped non-drinkers feel good about their choices, as well as helping those who abstain be seen as valuable and valid members of a social group.
Most importantly though, due once again to education, I believe we are seeing a major shift in parental attitudes in this area. Parents have now got the message that we must try to delay drinking for as long as we possibly can and many try their very best to do just that. It's not going to be easy and the Australian culture and our attitudes around alcohol and its role in socializing makes it even more difficult but it appears that our efforts in this area seem to be starting to pay off. Sure, there are always going to be those parents who make it even more difficult for others by trying to be their child's best friend and providing (or tolerating) alcohol at parties and gatherings, but there are growing numbers of Mums and Dads who are working hard to instil good values and attitudes in their kids and provide rules and boundaries in this area in an effort to keep their teen as safe as possible.

So let's take the time to celebrate our teens - they live in a very complex world and they're doing a pretty good job of navigating through it! We should grab the results of this survey and yell them from the rooftops because I can pretty well guarantee you they'll be something pretty miserable coming out about their mental health, links to crime rates or use of social media in the coming weeks ...

Herring, R., Bayley, M. & Hurcombe, R. (2014). "But no one told me it's okay to not drink": A qualitative study of young people who drink little or no alcohol. Journal of Substance Use 19, 95-102.
White, J. (2016). Generation clean: Why many young adults choose to stay sober. New Scientist 3102, 3 December.

Friday, 9 June 2017

"We didn't call other parents – he told us we didn't need to!" One Mum's story of when it all went horribly wrong ...

I've talked so much about trust over the last couple of months and the importance of remembering that during adolescence your child is likely to lie to you to get what they want. There are certainly those parents who don't agree with me, choosing to believe that if you trust your teenager they will 'repay' that trust with being open and honest about their behaviour, whatever that may entail ... As I have said, I believe strongly in the following - most young people will do the 'right thing' most of the time, however, all young people will do the 'wrong thing' at least some of the time!

Parents need to be prepared for their child to 'let them down' at some time or another. Of course, don't 'expect' them to do the wrong thing but it is important to 'accept' that they are likely to slip up now and then, that's just what adolescents do! Every parenting expert will tell you that you have to trust your child at some point, but as I have said time and time again, blind trust is dangerous ... A couple of weeks ago I had this comment posted onto one of my blog entries:

"I heard you speak a number of years ago and remember feeling quite confronted when you said that my son would lie to me at some point. He was 12 at the time and I am ashamed to say that my husband and I completely ignored almost all of the advice you gave that night about boundaries and rules. We really believed that if we trusted our son he would repay that trust by being honest with us. He is now 16-years-old and has recently been arrested for the third time for drug use. He is a good kid but we let him down by not providing the boundaries we should have when he was younger. We didn't call other parents – he told us we didn't need to! It took a police officer knocking at our door for us to finally realize what had been going on for over 2 years! I wish we'd listened …"

I have since had contact with this mother (let's call her Jill) who is really struggling at the moment. Jill and her husband are desperately trying to work out how to deal with their son who has well and truly 'gone off the rails'. He successfully manipulated his parents from the age of 14 (and possibly even younger) and had them totally convinced that they had an open and honest relationship. Even though they never took him to where he was meant to be going, never spoke to the parents who were supposedly hosting parties he was apparently attending or did any other type of checking up on what he was doing on a Saturday night, he had them convinced that all was fine! As she said to me over the phone, "He was doing well at school, the friends of his that we had met seemed nice and we had no reason to believe that anything was amiss."

Now, apart from his third brush with the law, their Year 11 son is now facing expulsion from school for bringing cannabis to school, his grades have fallen dramatically and their family is crumbling. I feel so sorry for these parents - they sound like really good people who were trying to do the right thing but just found themselves being well and truly played by an extremely manipulative teen. The very real problem they face now is how to deal with placing rules and boundaries around a young man who simply has never had any before. Trying to change the way you parent when they are 16-years-old is going to be extremely difficult, if not impossible. Realistically the only thing Jill and her husband are going to be able to do at this point is to try to build and maintain some sort of positive relationship with him, keep him as safe as possible and work in partnership with his school in an effort to get him through to his final exams. They have a very tough 18 months ahead of them ...

When I look at a group of students, particularly Year 10s, I can certainly see the problem that many parents face. Many of these teens are well and truly becoming young adults - they are physically changing, they are developing their own attitudes and values around so many things, particularly social issues and they want to be treated like adults. This means that they want to make their own decisions about where they go and what they do and they want to be trusted. Of course, parents need to respect how they feel and the changes their child is going through, but at the same time we must remember that they are adolescents and they need our help to get safely through this stage of their life ... The truth is that they are not able to make good decisions at this time - their brains are not fully developed and are 'programmed' to weigh risk in a very different way to an adult. In fact, their brains actually push them to take risks - this is an evolutionary feature that we are never going to change. We need to keep them safe ...

I am in the middle of reading an amazing book at the moment (I've read three great books recently, all of which I'll talk about in the coming weeks) and I don't think I have ever seen such a perfectly written explanation of adolescence and why effective parenting and boundary setting is still so vital at this stage of life. The book is called Setting Limits With Your Strong-Willed Teen by Robert J. MacKenzie and he writes the following in his summary of a chapter dealing with a parent's changing role in adolescence:

"When children enter adolescence they want and need us to shift from a direct and active role as primary authority figure to a seemingly less involved background figure that coaches from the sidelines. The role they want us to play is full of contradictions. Most teens want, and still need, us to be the central authority figures in their lives, but they don't want to think of us as such. They prefer to think of themselves as free agents who can manage their own affairs.

But the vast majority of teens are not ready to be the 'free agents' or to manage their own affairs. They still need our firm limits to guide their testing and exploration, our encouragement, our assistance with problem solving, and our instructive consequences when they choose to learn their lessons the hard way ..."

MacKenzie then goes onto talking more about 'coaching from the sidelines' (really another way of saying that during adolescence you move from a 'managing role' (parent-child) to a 'consulting role', which I have talked about many times). Where this book is quite different is that it really focuses on parental behaviour and responses to teen behaviour - I haven't finished it yet, but that quote is so 'spot-on' I just had to share it ...

When we spoke on the phone I asked Jill whether she would permit me to include her comment in a blog entry. Her response was heartbreaking. She burst into tears and said "Please let other parents know that this can happen to them. No-one wants to go through what we're going through at the moment. We feel like we've lost our son and it's all our fault!" Now, as I said to her at the time, I don't agree that it's all their fault - when you hear some of the things their son was doing from the age of 14, this was not 'normal' behaviour. He was clever and knew how to shut them down when they asked questions. Certainly, things may not be so bad if they had set boundaries and did some basic checking, but realistically, he sounds like a young man with some issues that would have always caused them problems, no matter what parenting style they had used.

Only you can make decisions around how you parent, nobody else can tell you what you should or shouldn't be doing. As I said to Jill, you can only do the best you can do at the time and, if things go wrong, you can't waste time beating yourself up about it. You've got to pick yourself up, dust yourself off and work out what you're going to do next. You're going to be no good to your teen if you sit around saying 'What if?' ... I think the most important thing that I got Jill and her husband to do was to go and seek professional counselling - not for their son but for them! They are so beaten up and so convinced that everything is their fault that they are going to be no help for their son at all. As I said, the next 18 months is going to be tough for their family, they need to be strong and supported - professional help is vital ...

MacKenzie, R.J. (2015). Setting Limits With Your Strong-Willed Teen. Harmony Books: New York.

Saturday, 3 June 2017

Alcohol and other drugs: Why the media often gets it so wrong and why I have pulled away from interviews ...

For those of you who listened to Triple J in the late 1990s, I was the 'drug guy' on The Morning Show. For seven years I was a regular on ABC's youth radio network where for an hour each Friday morning we discussed a different drug-related topic, took calls from listeners across the country and talked about the 'pros and cons' of use. It was an amazing experience and I need to thank the wonderful Angela Catterns for first taking me under her wing and introducing me to the unique and incredible Triple J audience. I don't believe that there is any way that a segment like that would run on a national radio station today. Perhaps you would get one up-and-running on community radio, but even then it would take a brave broadcaster to cover some of the topics we dealt with back then ...

For almost 20 years I regularly appeared in the media. In my role as the Information Manager at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), I provided comment on drug-related issues of the day, as well as promoting the research findings from the Centre. It became a major part of my role and I developed great relationships with journalists and media organisations across the country. When I left that role I continued to do interviews, focussing in on only alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and young people - that fitted in with my new business and it was the area that I was most passionate about. If appropriate, I would agree to be interviewed about other topics but more often than not I would refer the journalist to someone with expertise in the area.

For the past couple of years, however, I have refused almost all media requests and am frequently asked by those who remember the Triple J days why they rarely hear from me anymore ... I thought it was about time to explain my decision to pull away from making media comment ... I have just returned from overseas after presenting at a conference on the changing role of the media and its impact on the AOD field but it was a phone call from a reporter just before I left that really led me to write this blog entry ... She wanted me to comment on what I knew about 'flakka' and the fact that it was making those who used it have sex with trees! She was putting a piece together based on the UK article shown above and after a 15-minute conversation with her about the merits of a piece on this topic I realized that it was time to say something ...

I always promised myself that I would not become my father and be that person who says "but it's not like it used to be!", but that's exactly what I'm going to do ... Let's make it clear at this point, the media has never got the alcohol and other drug issue completely right but at least there were some people who tried bloody hard! Now that we find ourselves entrenched in the '24 hour news cycle', are drowning in commentators (from both sides of the political spectrum) who seem to hold unbelievable power and spit vitriol rather than ever having anything positive or constructive to say and have so many people rely on Facebook and other social media for their news - it's almost become impossible to get any accurate and well-balanced information out there!

I've talked about the media and the 'ice epidemic' issue many times before but, for me, that has been the straw that broke the camel's back! Every time I have been interviewed about this topic, particularly in the print media, I provide them with the prevalence data we have on the use of methamphetamine - they don't like the numbers, as they don't match what they want to write, and so they inevitably move onto asking me about whether I have seen much ice use at the schools I visit. I tell them I haven't seen any and, once again, they tune out! I have spent hours with journalists from across the country on this topic and my comments are rarely, if ever, used. When I read the published article they have inevitably gone to an unnamed police source or the like and got the quotes they actually wanted - "Ice is everywhere, it's unbelievably cheap and everyone's using it!" It's infuriating! Yes, this is a horrible drug that has caused devastating effects on users, families and the wider community but it is vital that the issue is given a context. Most people don't use the drug and they never will ...

As I said, there's going to be a lot of 'it's not like the old days' for the next few minutes but, regardless, here are just a few of my concerns in the area:
  • entertainment programs are now often sold to the audience as news or current affairs programs. Morning television shows used to be a great place to roll-out new research findings. Yes, there was always an entertainment aspect to these programs but for at least the first hour of airtime, you got 'hard news'. You were given a good 3-5 minutes to cover an issue and it was 'live' and 'face-to-face', that often gave you a minute or two to talk to the interviewer and let them know one key message you wanted to get across. Now, you're lucky if you get 3 minutes and, even if you're in the same city that the program is recorded in, you're placed somewhere else in the building to make it look like they're doing a 'live-cross' to you - why, I have no idea!  
  • TV programs are now constantly looking for that 'water cooler moment' - there's real competition across the networks to get that one comment or incident that will then make it online and go viral. Instead of simply reporting the news, many breakfast and morning programs actually want to make the news. The opportunities to get quality information about a range of issues out to the general public via these programs is reducing all the time
  • so much of what is discussed in so-called 'news programs' is now delivered by 'media personalities' and not experts in their field. I get it that not all academics or other experts are great talent - some I have worked with over the years should never provide media comment - but whoever thought it was a good idea to get a collection of 'personalities' to discuss complex issues like medicinal cannabis and drug testing in the workplace is beyond me! One I saw recently had a panel of 3 people, two women and one man - a footballer's wife, a fashion designer and a radio host - discussing cybersafety! The number of times I have wanted to put my foot through the television when one of these people has said something that is so factually incorrect is ridiculous ... The trouble is there are people out there who believe that if it is said on the TV it must be true - no matter who says it!
  • journalists aren't prepared to wait for thoughtful and considered comment. The media has always worked to tight deadlines but in the 24-hour news cycles, there is simply no time to wait for the interviewee to examine what they have been asked to comment on and then think about an appropriate response. When one person won't provide the comment in a timely manner, journalists are simply finding someone else who will. I certainly don't blame the journos for this - their job has become increasingly difficult and the pressure they must be under is unimaginable. That aside, as a result, we're increasingly finding media stories covering AOD issues containing information that is incorrect. When it is discovered that what has been written is wrong, it is rarely, if ever, corrected and misinformation continues to circulate
  • many online stories, once published, are there forever. That's great if what has been written is accurate, but if it is incorrect, then that piece of misinformation is dredged up over and over again, often being referred to years later
  • 'media grabs' have always been a part of the interview experience but now that's it, there's often nothing else done to support those grabs. Working out three key points you want to cover for a TV or radio news spot has always been one of the most 'fun' parts of doing a media interview. These would be a simple summary statement of a complex issue that you could almost guarantee would be dealt with in greater detail elsewhere - there would be an article on the topic printed in the newspaper, a lengthier TV interview was due to be aired later that day. That's not the case anymore - a grab is all you sometimes get. Alcohol and other drug issues, like so many other social issues, are presented in a couple of 'black and white' statements and there are no 'shades of grey'
Alcohol and other drugs is a complex issue and no-one (no matter what their viewpoint) is ever going to be completely happy with how it is covered in the media. Journalists have one of the most difficult jobs in the world and now, with the 24-hour news cycle and the growing influence of social media, it is getting harder. We also now have a growing discussion about so-called 'fake news' and its impact. Whether we like it or not all of us are influenced by the media in some way. You can be the most 'media-literate' person out there and be well aware of the particular biases that particular outlets may have, but when you are bombarded with the same message over and over again (e.g., previews of tabloid current affairs programs as you watch one of your favourite TV shows, reading headlines of newspapers or magazines as you sit opposite someone on a train or bus), it is a strong person that isn't going to be affected in some way ...

It is extremely important that people examine the media critically - looking beyond the headlines and the 'click-bait' and looking at who is being quoted and why. This is particularly true for parents of teens, many of whom are worried about things they see and hear in the media that most probably aren't even going to be on their own children's radar. Of course, parents should be concerned about this area but they should always be wary of sensational coverage and misinformation.

After presenting at the conference, writing this piece and really thinking through this issue I now have to consider what I do next in this area. Do I start to engage with the media more and just 'grin and bear' the frustration when things don't go as hoped or do I continue to sit back, refuse to make comment and let it all happen around me? It's a tough one - I love writing my blog and engaging with people, particularly parents - but there's no better way of reaching huge numbers of people and hopefully making a positive impact than by having a 3-minute live interview on a television program! Watch this space ...

About Me

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Paul Dillon has been working in the area of drug education for the past 25 years. Through his own business, Drug and Alcohol Research and Training Australia (DARTA) he has been contracted by many organisations to give regular updates on current drug trends. He has also worked with many school communities to ensure that they have access to good quality information and best practice drug education. His book 'Teenagers, Alcohol and Drugs' was released nationally in February 2009. With a broad knowledge of a range of content areas, Paul regularly appears in the media and is regarded as a key social commentator, with interviews on television programs such as Sunrise, TODAY and The Project.